03 Nov Concrete: varieties, features
Concrete is one of the most popular building materials. Its importance cannot be overestimated. It consists of binders: cement, fine and coarse aggregates, water, additives. The cement that is part of the concrete can be both conventional and modified Portland cement, fast-hardening, having a low exotherm, sulfate-resistant. Thanks to the aggregate, which forms something like a framework, the concrete solution does not settle when hardening. The filler is natural and artificial. It must be hard and durable, without a large amount of loam, clay, shale, mica, alkali and other materials. Clean water must be used to prepare concrete. The strength of the concrete mixture depends on the amount of water, the less liquid, the stronger the solution. Additives reduce the amount of water.
Concrete is several types.
The composition of asphalt concrete includes sand, crushed stone, bitumen, mineral powder, tint pigment. All components are first dried, then heated to a certain temperature, mixed. The scope of such concrete is the construction of roads, airfields, roofs.
Fine sand-based concrete is cheaper than other types of concrete. But due to the use of sand, the strength of such concrete is reduced, so more concrete mixture has to be used than previously thought.
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Antifreeze additives in the composition of concrete increase its durability. Such a mixture perfectly resists freezing and thawing, which is important for structures exposed to various atmospheric phenomena.
Finely ground additives give concrete good strength without increasing its quantity.
Concrete used for road surfaces has increased flexural strength, compression, frost resistance.
Fast-hardening concrete gains high strength in 1-3 days. Strengthening accelerator and other additives are added to it.
High-strength concrete is mixed on the basis of high-grade cement, sand and crushed stone. When laying, this type of concrete is compacted by vibration or the addition of hyperplasticizers.
Gypsum concrete incorporates gypsum materials, aggregates, mineral and organic. All these components contribute to increasing its moisture and weather resistance, slowing down the setting.
Decorative concrete contains a pigment that color the concrete.
Heat-resistant concrete is able to withstand exposure to high temperatures for a long time. Its scope is thermal units, furnaces.
Reinforced concrete combines concrete mix and rebar. Very durable structure used in various construction areas.