Foundation types and classifications

Foundation types and classifications

The foundation is an important element in the construction of houses; the integrity of the walls and roof depends on its strength and reliability. Even with its slight subsidence, deep cracks may appear in the walls of the house in the external and internal decoration. Therefore, it is necessary to properly approach the foundation work. The durability of construction depends on the quality of the selected materials, the correct calculation and adherence to technological processes.

For laying the foundation, building materials are used that have high frost resistance, strength and water resistance. These are usually local materials, for example, sand, rubble, rebar, monolithic and precast concrete products. Often, a paronyte is used to compact reinforcement, which is a universal laying material. For the correct use of these materials, certain knowledge and skills are required.

In laying the foundation, its waterproofing plays a special role. It protects the building from the harmful effects of atmospheric and soil moisture. Today, at the disposal of developers for decades, proven methods of bitumen waterproofing, mastic, roofing material and various modified polymer materials. This technology is quite old, but has not yet lost its popularity. Methods of waterproofing depend mainly on the purpose of the building, climate conditions and the type of foundation. Protection is necessary, not only the underground part of the foundation, but also the above -ground – the basement.

The ability to waterproof the foundation is a rather narrow specialization, and there are not so many specialists in this area. The first thing to do is to carefully prepare the surface. It should be free of cracks and chips, perfectly smooth. This is necessary for a tighter adhesion of the waterproofing material and the surface of the foundation slabs. If bituminous foundation waterproofing is used, then the concrete surface should be as dry as possible. If it is supposed to use a PVC membrane, then the surface may be with a small degree of moisture.

Waterproofing is carried out in two planes: horizontal and vertical. The vertical layer is made on a vertical surface and protects the foundation from the penetration of precipitation and soil moisture. For its creation using modern innovative materials. For example, liquid glass, which does not lose its qualities, unlike bitumen.

The horizontal layer is primarily needed to protect the walls of basements and buildings from water. It is carried out in two levels: along the basement floor and along the upper surface of the foundation slabs. To create it, roll materials are used, of which there are a huge number on the construction market. It is very important that the vertical and horizontal layers are securely and hermetically connected to each other. Waterproofing should be done only in warm weather – approximately from spring to autumn.

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