26 Nov Stone materials of artificial origin. Brick and its types.
Today, brick is almost universally used in suburban construction. And this is not surprising, because the projects of brick houses that construction companies offer their customers look so pretty that they simply cannot refuse them. Building bricks are ordinary, light and silicate. The dimensions of an ordinary brick are 250x120x65 mm, the weight of one brick is 3.5 kg. It is a good material for walls: it is fireproof and durable.
Light (hollow) brick is a scorched clay stone with internal through holes that reduce its volumetric weight and thermal conductivity. The number of holes varies depending on the type of brick. Light brick is made single (250x120x65 mm) and double (250x120x103 mm).
Sand-lime brick is a mixture of lime (5%) and quartz sand (95%). After formation, it is steamed under pressure in boilers (autoclaves) to provide the necessary strength. Silicate brick has a light gray color and the same dimensions in length and width as ceramic, but its thickness can be 65 (single (one and a half)) and 103 mm (double). A single brick weighs 3.5-4, one and a half – about 5, double – about 5.7 kg. Silicate brick is not suitable for laying foundations and building chimneys.
Brick for masonry must have the correct shape, straight edges, not have cracks and other defects.
A normally fired clay brick is predominantly red in color and produces a clear sound when struck; unburned brick with a yellowish tint, and when struck it has a dull sound. Scorched brick is iron ore with a melted surface, which is not used for laying walls, but is suitable for building foundations.
For laying fireplaces, stoves, arches, vaults, fireboxes, only high quality clay bricks should be used.
Refractory and refractory bricks are used for laying the firebox and the internal surfaces of furnaces. The service life of such a brick is several times higher than that of a conventional one. Dimensions: 250x123x65 and 230x113x65 mm, weight – 3.4 and 2.9 kg, respectively.
For the laying of external load-bearing walls, thin-walled hollow ceramic stones are also used, which are laid in the direction of the voids, and when filling – with a horizontal. Ceramic stones with a horizontal direction of voids should be placed in the wall so that the voids are directed along the wall.
The upper and lower planes of the brick are called beds, the side planes are called spoons, and the end planes are called poles. Bricks that come to the surface of the wall with an edge make up a spoon row, and with an end side – a bonder.
Bricks enclosed in each row along the outer planes of the walls form a layer, and those enclosed between the layers form a backfill. To do this, use halves of bricks and a brick fight.
Seams in masonry are vertical and horizontal. Average thickness of vertical seams – 10, horizontal – 12 mm. Seams less than 6 and more than 15 mm thick are not recommended.
External seams are partially or completely closed with mortar, depending on whether the wall will be plastered in the future or not. In the first case, for better adhesion of the wall to the plaster, the outer seams are left unfilled to a depth of 10-15 mm. This masonry is called wasteland. When the seams are completely filled, the masonry is called a full seam. Such seams are usually embroidered, that is, each seam is provided with a certain profile – convex, bent, single-cut, etc. P.
When laying walls, in addition to full bricks, trichvertins, halves, quarters and longitudinal halves are used to dress the seams.
Brick masonry can be solid and lightweight, t. e. with voids.